(i) Sodium carbonate is naturally occurring in alkaline waters, however it is also synthesised by the Solvay process or by electrolysis of sea water. Sodium carbonate is used as an acidity regulator, particularly in beer making. Excessive ingestion may result in stomach upset. Typical products include beer, baking, soft and fizzy drinks, medications. No known adverse effects in small quantities. May irritate the eyes and respiratory tract.
(iii) Sodium sesquicarbonate occurs naturally in saline waters, it is used as a base. No adverse effects are known.
(ii) Sodium hydrogen carbonate (Bicarbonate of soda) is used in food mainly as a raising agent, but also as a base. It is prepared synthetically.
Sodium carbonate is the sodium salt of carbonic acid, which is carbon dioxide dissolved in water. It is more commonly known as washing soda or soda ash. It is synthetically produced in large quantities from table salt, and produces a white powder that is used as an acidity regulator, anti-caking agent, raising agent, and a stabiliser in foods.
Sodium bicarbonate is produced by the reaction of calcium carbonate, sodium chloride, ammonia, and carbon dioxide in water. It produces a fine, white powder with the common name of baking soda, bicarb soda, and sodium bicarb. It is used as an acidity regulator, anti-caking agent, raising agent, and a stabiliser in foods.
Used in beer making, soft drinks, carbonated beverages, sherbet lollies and confectionary, noodles, baked goods, and also used as an additive in baking.